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Thesis work - Modeling, Simulation, and Injection of Camera Images/Video to Automotive Embedded ECU

Thesis Worker at Volvo Cars

Welcome to explore the world of Volvo Cars by writing your thesis with us! As a thesis worker in our organization you are supported by a supervisor who follows you during your project. All thesis projects are arranged in business critical areas and therefore you will be able to contribute to our company purpose – providing freedom to move in a safe, sustainable and personal way – from day one! 



At Volvo Cars, we are making bold digital visions come true. We aim to lead in the automotive world by creating a digital ecosystem built around making our customers' lives less complicated. Now we are looking for curious, creative people who want to change the world through innovative thinking.

Our development centres heavily around software (SW) and in our next generation vehicles, we take a giant leap into the future by launching a capable centralized compute platform, hosting most of the active safety, driver support and vehicle motion control SW. Connecting all exterior sensors to central computer(s) and embedded GPUs is a great enabler for in-house SW development, continuous innovation on a stable compute platform, and superior customer offerings. Together with our partners we are building a modular, service-based perception platform and leading safety and driver support applications. We are setting the scene for future safety innovations as well as autonomous driving features. We deliver on our purpose of providing safe, personal, and sustainable mobility aiming towards a future of Zero Collisions.

In our next generation vehicles, we are building a computer-in-the-car architecture, a key for enabling innovation within areas such as Vehicle Motion, Advanced Connectivity, Machine Learning, and Autonomous Drive. Our mission is to create a Vehicle Control Unit platform using new technologies like DriveOS and NVIDIA’s latest chip technology in combination with more traditional car signalling technologies. This core computer and the corresponding platform will simplify the software/application development to create a safe, reliable, and secure platform for increased innovation and speed.

Verification and Validation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Autonomous Driving Systems (ADS) with the extensive sensor technology are one of the main challenges to achieve secure and safe self-driving cars. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) based testing methods offer the great advantage of verifying sensors and validating components and systems in an early stage of the development cycle. Advanced sensor simulation techniques can be used to validate functions for autonomous driving throughout the development process.


Hardware-in-Loop test environments secure the possibility to test and verify the real ECUs in the controlled and repeatable test environment by stimulating them with recorded data in open loop or synthetic data in closed loop. Consider an example setup (Refer to Figure 1 below) for closed-loop HIL simulation as well as raw data input for a front camera. Note the Toggle Switch. Here, the camera image sensor, including the lens, is replaced, and simulated by the HIL environment.

The traffic, driver and vehicle dynamics simulation is executed on a Real-Time Platform with an update interval of x msec. In addition, the Real-Time Platform for the restbus simulation is connected to the vehicle network (CAN, Ethernet, FlexRay, etc.). (Restbus simulation is a technique used to validate ECU functions by simulating parts of an in-vehicle bus such as the controller area network). The results of this simulation are transferred to a powerful computer which is referred to as the Sensor Simulation PC. The computer then generates a three-dimensional, real-time, highresolution representation of the environment. Using the relevant, parameterized camera model, raw sensor data (camera images in this example) are generated in this PC. The raw sensor data (camera images) is transferred to the Interface Unit via the Display Port interface of the Sensor Simulation PC. This Microcontroller or FPGA based platform executes all remaining parts of the camera model. For example, it executes light control or simulates the I2C interface of the image sensor. This Interface Unit converts the images into electrical signals fed through fiber-optic cable (over GMSL2 protocol) to the Image Processing stack in the Automotive Embedded ECU.

These embedded test setups are built around the above-mentioned computer-in-the-car architecture. These setups are a combination of vehicle simulator and real hardware components to emulate a real vehicle with all the relevant dynamics. Our team(s) are responsible for the development and maintenance of these embedded setups, while making sure that these setups are capable to execute relevant test cases for platform, software, and function verification. These are state-of-the art test setups, critical for testing software before the final product is launched. Hence, you will be working in a fast paced, innovative environment, solving problems and challenges daily. 

Together with us, you will grow your competence and get a broad understanding of Volvo Cars Next Generation Vehicles and Software Platform along with domain growth in Vehicle Motion Control and Autonomous Driving. You will work closely with other groups at Volvo Cars, our suppliers and get the opportunity to create a wide network.

Your contribution is our future 
We believe you are an individual who is motivated by challenging tasks in a complex and innovative environment. Execution of challenging technology development and teamwork is your real passion. You enjoy learning from others, as well as sharing your knowledge with your colleague and are social, structured, analytical, and a problem solver. 


You and your skills
Mandatory Requirements 
• M.Sc. or a B.Sc. within Electrical/Embedded Systems, Robotics, Computer Science, 
• Knowledge of Microcontrollers, Embedded Systems, Communication Protocols, 
Software Development, Verification and Validation
• Fluent in English and can communicate effectively with all types of stakeholders.


• Knowledge in vehicle communication protocols 
• Programming skills in Matlab, Python, C++
• Working knowledge in hardware-in-loop environments such as dSpace or Vector
• Experience from SW platform development, including middleware.
• Knowledge in vehicle/traffic simulation
• Knowledge in integration of sensor technologies (radar, camera, lidar, ultrasonic 
• Verification in vehicles at system or functional level or experience from test 


•    The work will start in January or February 2023 
•    The duration for this thesis work is 20 weeks.
•    30 ECTS (Master academic credits)


Be part of the change – apply today!
For questions about the position please contact Siddhant Gupta at We want your application at the latest December 11th, 2022. Please note that due to GDPR, applications via email will not be accepted.


We are Volvo Cars

Volvo Cars is a company on a mission to bring traditional car manufacturing into a connected, sustainable and smart future. Since 1927, we've been known for our commitment to safety and for creating innovative cars that make life less complicated. In 2010, we decided to radically redefine our business, resulting in a totally new generation of cars and technology, as well as steady growth and record sales - and we're only getting started. By 2025, we aim to have yearly sales of 1.2 million cars, 50% of which will be electric vehicles and sold directly to customers through digital channels. We also intend to strengthen our position as a modern, progressive employer committed to diversity and gender and racial equality. We believe in the power of people. Join us and be part of Volvo Cars' transformation. 

Gothenburg, SE

Job requisition ID:  63071

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